During the nineteenth century there was a huge increase in the level and types of gambling in Thailand. Taxes on gambling became a major source of state revenue, with the government establishing state-run lotteries and casinos in the first half of the twentieth century. Nevertheless, over the same period, a strong anti-gambling discourse emerged within the Thai elite, which sought to regulate gambling through a series of increasingly restrictive and punitive laws. By the mid-twentieth century, most forms of gambling had been made illegal, a situation that persists until today. This historical study, based on a wide variety of Thai- and English-language archival sources including government reports, legal cases and newspapers, places the criminalization of gambling in Thailand in the broader context of the country's socio-economic transformation and the modernization of the Thai state. Particular attention is paid to how state institutions, such as the police and judiciary, and different sections of Thai society shaped and subverted the law to advance their own interests. Finally, the book compares the Thai government's policies on gambling with those on opium use and prostitution, placing the latter in the context of an international clampdown on vice in the early twentieth century.
Metallic systems are ubiquitous in daily life. They play key roles, for example, in the chemistry of many biomolecules, ionic solutions, nanoparticles and catalytic processes. They may be in solid, liquid or gaseous form. The interactions of other molecules with metal surfaces are of considerable importance. Each of these topics is addressed in Metallic Systems. As we have entered the age where theoretical approaches are sufficiently mature to complement and guide experiments in many areas, an understanding of the theoretical tools and approaches to studying metallic systems is essential. Metallic Systems is concerned with enhancing our understanding of the diverse chemistry of metals and metal-containing systems and the applicability of modern quantum chemistry methodologies to study them.
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